There are many names thrown around to describe stamps, but there are actually only two main types: rubber stamps and clear stamps. You can get these stamps at any scrapbooking tools
and supplies store or you can also buy them online and you can even order custom stamps for a specific theme.
Rubber stamps are your traditional red-colored stamps that are often mounted onto a woodblock and ready to use with your ink straight away. Most older stamps are rubber with a wooden backing and come with ink pads.
If you don't own any yourself, you may have seen custom rubber stamps with a logo on it used at places of business, like at the bank when they used to manually stamp your cheque, or what the post office used to stamp on your envelope to show that you had paid for the postage.
Clear stamps are see-through, making it easier to line up on your page. They need to be mounted onto a reusable acrylic block to use, which is also clear. Clear stamps are very popular these days and as they are so cost effective, it is best used in scrapbooking and it's really hard to find fault with them.
Both of these stamps are used by inking your stamp and pushing it onto your paper. Stamps can also be pre-inked but these are rarely used in scrapbooking as they are not cost-effective since they run out of ink quite easily, have less customizability with ink colors, and don't come in as wide a variety as clear or rubber stamps.
Self-inking stamps are more commonly used by businesses or teachers while scrappers and paper crafters use ink pads of different colors and various stamping designs.
Although I regularly use both kinds of stamps, today I am using the traditional rubber stamps. However, you can follow along with any type of stamp. Here is what my final layout looks like.